TRENDS IN THE CARE AND OUTCOMES OF MEDICARE BENEFICIARIES WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES, 2002-2011.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries with type 2 diabetes and to describe changing trends in care and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative 5% sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older with prevalent type 2 diabetes, between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. The main outcome measures were diabetes-related screening tests, mortality, hospital admissions, dialysis, and lower extremity amputation. RESULTS: The average age of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes was 76.5 years, 56% were women, and 83% were white. Screening practices in beneficiaries with diabetes improved from 2002 to 2011, with rising rates of foot exams, renal screening, hemoglobin A1c tests, and lipid profile tests. The prevalence of nephropathy and neuropathy increased. Although inpatient admissions declined from 2002 to 2011, diabetes-related emergency department visits increased. Amputation and end-stage renal disease remained static, while 1-year mortality declined over the study period. CONCLUSION: In this medically complex group of patients with high comorbidity, we observed improvements in screening practices and room for further improvement. Although the mortality rate decreased, other outcomes did not improve consistently. Health care resource has changed over time, with decreased hospital admissions and increased emergency department visits. ABBREVIATIONS: CCW = Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse ESRD = end-stage renal disease HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c HEDIS = Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification.
Hyland, KA; Greiner, MA; Qualls, LG; Califf, RM; Hernandez, AF; Curtis, LH
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