Contemporary Reflections on the Safety of Long-Term Aspirin Treatment for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.
Aspirin has been the cornerstone of therapy for the secondary prevention treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease since landmark trials were completed in the late 1970s and early 1980s that demonstrated the efficacy of aspirin for reducing the risk of ischemic events. Notwithstanding the consistent benefits demonstrated with aspirin for both acute and chronic cardiovascular disease, there are a number of toxicities associated with aspirin that have been showcased by recent long-term clinical trials that have included an aspirin monotherapy arm. As an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX), aspirin impairs gastric mucosal protective mechanisms. Previous trials have shown that up to 15-20 % of patients developed gastrointestinal symptoms with aspirin monotherapy, and approximately 1 % of patients per year had a clinically significant bleeding event, including 1 in 1000 patients who suffered an intracranial or fatal bleed. These risks have been shown to be compounded for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who are also treated with other antithrombotic agents during the acute care/procedural period, as well as for an extended time period afterwards. Given observations of substantial increases in bleeding rates from many prior long-term clinical trials that have evaluated aspirin together with other oral platelet inhibitors or oral anticoagulants, the focus of contemporary research has pivoted towards tailored antithrombotic regimens that attempt to either shorten the duration of exposure to aspirin or replace aspirin with an alternative antithrombotic agent. While these shifts are occurring, the safety profile of aspirin when used for the secondary prevention treatment of patients with established cardiovascular disease deserves further consideration.
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