Evolution of airplanes, and what price speed?
The constructal theory of flight accounts not only for speed, body size, and medium density r but also for physical parameters that are an integral part of the derivation of these equations in their original sources. One parameter is the Reynolds number, which is assumed to be greater than 102-103, such that the drag coefficient is of order one and relatively insensitive to the Reynolds number. Another assumption is that all speeds are subsonic, which is why the Mach number does not appear in these equations. For aircraft, the speed predicted by constructal theory in 2000 is the cruising speed. Airplanes do not evolve by themselves: they evolve as a couple, with the humans who design them and use them.
Bejan, A; Charles, JD; Lorente, S; Dowell, EH
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