Eating disorders and gastrointestinal peptides.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disturbances in gastrointestinal hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. However, the contribution of these hormonal changes to the onset and maintenance of eating disorder remains unclear. We focus our review on a selective number of gastrointestinal hormones that are known to play a role in the regulation of short-term or long-term energy balance and examine their association with eating disorder in recently published literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Several new studies reported differential changes of ghrelin isoforms during fasting and following nutrient ingestion. New findings on other appetite-regulating hormones (peptide YY, cholecystokinin, incretin hormones and pancreatic polypeptide) at different nutritional states and disease stage have also been reported in subtypes of eating disorder. Most of the changes in peripheral hormones disappeared or partially recovered after the restoration of weight with nutritional and behavioral therapy. SUMMARY: Dysregulation of gastrointestinal hormones is more likely to contribute to the maintenance of the disordered eating behavior and related metabolic outcomes as well as the clinical course rather than causing them. A better understanding of this relationship also carries implications for developing targeted hormone-base treatment for eating disorder.
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