Regional Variation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survival in the United States.
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have shown marked variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival across US regions, factors underlying this survival variation remain incompletely explained. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, we identified 96 662 adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 132 US counties. We used hierarchical regression models to examine county-level variation in rates of survival and survival with functional recovery (defined as Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 or 2) and examined the contribution of demographics, cardiac arrest characteristics, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, automated external defibrillator use, and county-level sociodemographic factors in survival variation across counties. A total of 9317 (9.6%) patients survived to discharge, and 7176 (7.4%) achieved functional recovery. At a county level, there was marked variation in rates of survival to discharge (range, 3.4%-22.0%; median odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.46) and survival with functional recovery (range, 0.8%-21.0%; median odds ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.62). County-level rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator use were positively correlated with both outcomes (P<0.0001 for all). Patient demographic and cardiac arrest characteristics explained 4.8% and 27.7% of the county-level variation in survival, respectively. Additional adjustment of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator explained 41% of the survival variation, and this increased to 50.4% after adjustment of county-level sociodemographic factors. Similar findings were noted in analyses of survival with functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Although out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival varies significantly across US counties, a substantial proportion of the variation is attributable to differences in bystander response across communities.
Girotra, S; van Diepen, S; Nallamothu, BK; Carrel, M; Vellano, K; Anderson, ML; McNally, B; Abella, BS; Sasson, C; Chan, PS; CARES Surveillance Group and the HeartRescue Project,
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