Clinical pharmacokinetics of pinacidil, a potassium channel opener, in hypertension.
Pinacidil is a potassium channel opener that decreases blood pressure by reducing peripheral arterial resistance. In two multicenter trials, we studied the concentrations and apparent clearance of pinacidil (406 patients) and concentrations of its pyridyl-N-oxide metabolite (147 patients). Responding patients had plasma samples collected hourly for 12 hours on 2 occasions after weeks to months of treatment. Pinacidil dose was titrated from 12.5 to 75 mg b.i.d. The peak concentration of pinacidil and N-oxide and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were proportional to the dose of pinacidil, with an average pinacidil concentration of 268 micrograms/L (1.02 microM) and N-oxide concentration of 172 micrograms/L (0.65 microM) for every 1 mg/kg pinacidil administered. Clearance of pinacidil (Clp = Dose/AUC) was 31 L/hr in patients younger than 45 years and 27 L/hr in those older than 60. Clp was significantly smaller in white patients compared with other races (Clp = 28 vs. 34 L/hr). Clp was significantly less in patients taking hydrochlorothiazide (27 vs. 31 L/hr) and greater in smokers (33 vs. 29 L/hr). Concomitant propranolol use did not influence Clp.
Goldberg, MR; Rockhold, FW; Thompson, WL; DeSante, KA
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