Enhanced volumetric visualization for real time 4D intraoperative ophthalmic swept-source OCT.
Current-generation software for rendering volumetric OCT data sets based on ray casting results in volume visualizations with indistinct tissue features and sub-optimal depth perception. Recent developments in hand-held and microscope-integrated intrasurgical OCT designed for real-time volumetric imaging motivate development of rendering algorithms which are both visually appealing and fast enough to support real time rendering, potentially from multiple viewpoints for stereoscopic visualization. We report on an enhanced, real time, integrated volumetric rendering pipeline which incorporates high performance volumetric median and Gaussian filtering, boundary and feature enhancement, depth encoding, and lighting into a ray casting volume rendering model. We demonstrate this improved model implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware for real-time volumetric rendering of OCT data during tissue phantom and live human surgical imaging. We show that this rendering produces enhanced 3D visualizations of pathology and intraoperative maneuvers compared to standard ray casting.
Viehland, C; Keller, B; Carrasco-Zevallos, OM; Nankivil, D; Shen, L; Mangalesh, S; Viet, DT; Kuo, AN; Toth, CA; Izatt, JA
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