Adolescent Depression in the Arab Region: A Systematic Literature Review.
(Systematic Review;Review;Journal Article)
Adolescent depression is a primary cause of global disability and burden with considerable variability across countries in its prevalence, diagnosis, management, and prognosis. No systematic reviews have been published on adolescent depression in Arab countries despite the unique sociocultural background that can play a major role in shaping Arab depressed adolescents' prognosis and response to treatment. The purpose of this study was to provide such a review with the goal of identifying the necessary foundations for culturally competent mental health care practices to address the unique needs of Arab adolescents and their families. We systematically reviewed PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and available Arabic databases. We adhered to the PRISMA statement to guide the process of identification, selection, and appraisal of the reviewed articles. No restrictions were applied on publication date. The search was completed in December 2015. A total of 199 unique articles met criteria for screening at the abstract level; 47 articles were selected for review in full text; and 27 articles were included in the final analysis. Four emerging themes were identified: (1) few robust prevalence estimates of adolescent depression are available in Arab countries; (2) depression varies based on the individual characteristics of Arab adolescents; (3) context influences Arab adolescents' risk of experiencing depression; and (4) the stigma of depression negatively impacts help-seeking process among Arab adolescents. This review highlights the need for more community-based detection efforts that employ developmentally and culturally appropriate measurement instruments for adolescent depression. Furthermore, findings suggest the need for culturally competent care that integrates indigenous health practices into modern mental health systems. Nurses, who form the greatest proportion of health personnel in all Arab countries, are uniquely situated to help Arab adolescents experiencing depression restore, maintain, and/or promote their mental health and wellbeing.
Dardas, LA; Bailey, DE; Simmons, LA
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