Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cardiovascular disease


Book Section

© 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited. Complex biological systems constantly maintain a dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis) that is necessary for survival. This equilibrium is achieved through interactions with the environment, and adaptation to the ever-changing internal and external milieu. Throughout evolution, the stress system has remained a relatively well - preserved biological machinery that has served this function efficiently; designed to respond to internal or external challenges (stressors), and to reestablish homeostasis by various physiological and behavioral adaptive responses to stress which have been necessary for the survival of our ancestors in adverse environments.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Kaltsas, G; Zannas, AS; Chrousos, GP

Published Date

  • November 1, 2012

Volume / Issue

  • 9781848824195 /

Book Title

  • Stress and Cardiovascular Disease

Start / End Page

  • 71 - 87

International Standard Book Number 10 (ISBN-10)

  • 1848824181

International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)

  • 9781848824188

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/978-1-84882-419-5_5

Citation Source

  • Scopus