Precipitating Clinical Factors, Heart Failure Characterization, and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure With Reduced, Borderline, and Preserved Ejection Fraction.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the comparative frequency of precipitating clinical factors leading to hospitalization among heart failure (HF) patients with reduced, borderline, and preserved ejection fraction (EF) BACKGROUND: There are few data assessing the comparative frequency of clinical factors leading to HF among hospitalized among patients with reduced, borderline, and preserved EF. METHODS: We analyzed the factors potentially contributing to HF hospitalization among 99,825 HF admissions from 305 hospitals in the Get With The Guidelines-HF (GWTG-HF) database between January 2005 and September 2013 and assessed their association with length of stay and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 72.6 ± 14.2 years, 49% were female, and mean EF was 39.3 ± 17.2%. Common factors included pneumonia/respiratory process (28.2%), arrhythmia (21.7%), medication noncompliance (15.8%), worsening renal failure (14.7%), and uncontrolled hypertension (14.5%). In patients with borderline EF (EF 40% to 49%), pneumonia was associated with longer hospital stay, whereas dietary and medication noncompliance were associated with reduced length of stay. In patients with preserved EF (EF ≥50% or qualitative assessment of normal or mild dysfunction), pneumonia, weight gain, and worsening renal function were independently associated with longer lengths of stay. Worsening renal function and pneumonia were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality in all HF groups, and acute pulmonary edema was associated with higher mortality in reduced EF. Dietary noncompliance (14.7%) was associated with reduced mortality for all groups but reached statistical significance in the subgroups of reduced (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46 to 0.91) and preserved systolic function (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.83). Patients presenting with ischemia had a higher mortality rate (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.69; and 1.72; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.33, respectively, in the 2 groups). CONCLUSIONS: Potential precipitating factors among patients hospitalized with HF vary by EF group and are independently associated with clinical outcomes.
Kapoor, JR; Kapoor, R; Ju, C; Heidenreich, PA; Eapen, ZJ; Hernandez, AF; Butler, J; Yancy, CW; Fonarow, GC
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