The impact of a failing right heart in patients supported by intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation.
BACKGROUND: Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) provide primarily left ventricular support, yet few data detail the efficacy of this temporary mechanical circulatory support device in patients with concomitant right ventricular failure. We compared the efficacy of IABPs in cardiogenic shock patients with isolated left ventricular versus biventricular failure. METHODS: IABP-treated cardiogenic shock patients were identified from our center between 2006 and 2012, with patients stratified by either isolated left ventricular failure or biventricular failure. We compared baseline characteristics and 72-hour and 30-day outcomes between groups. Outcomes of interest included escalation of mechanical circulatory support, a clinical definition of IABP failure, and death. RESULTS: Among 107 patients, 60 patients (56%) had isolated left ventricular failure compared with 47 patients (44%) having biventricular failure. Patients with isolated left ventricular failure were older and more likely to have coronary artery disease ( p<0.05, both). Patients with biventricular failure more often required escalation of mechanical circulatory support at both 72 hours (21% vs. 2%, p<0.001) and 30 days (36% vs. 30%). However, there was no significant difference between groups for failure of IABP therapy at 72 hours ( p=0.27) or at 30 days ( p=0.62) and death at 30 days ( p=0.98). In adjusted analysis, there was no significant difference between groups with regard to risk for a clinical definition of IABP failure at 30 days (odds ratio=0.85, 95% confidence interval (0.27, 2.69)). CONCLUSIONS: IABP-treated cardiogenic shock patients with biventricular failure more often required early escalation of mechanical circulatory support. However, there were no significant differences by type of ventricular failure with regard to 30-day outcomes.
Krishnamoorthy, A; DeVore, AD; Sun, J-L; Barnett, AS; Samsky, MD; Shaw, LK; Chiswell, K; Patel, CB; Patel, MR
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