Surgical treatment of multiligament knee injuries.
PURPOSE: To analyse one institution's experience with multiligament knee injuries. METHODS: Over 10 years, 133 multiligament knee injuries including 130 patients were included in the study. Inclusion criteria included: (1) injury to two or more knee ligaments (2) multiligament knee repair/reconstructive surgery. RESULTS: The average age at time of injury was 26 years old, and 76 % were male. Fifty-one (38 %) multiligament knee injuries had >2 ligaments injured. Peroneal injuries occurred in 26 patients (20 %), and four (3 %) had associated vascular injuries. A high energy mechanism of injury was noted in 39 %. Twenty-five per cent of patients had an additional orthopaedic injury and, 11.5 % suffered additional non-orthopaedic injuries. Definitive surgical intervention was performed acutely (<3 weeks) in 47 %. Ninety-one per cent of multiligament knee injuries underwent reconstruction with or without repair. Forty-three complications occurred in 37 patients. Patients who suffered >2 ligament injury or had surgery acutely were at an increased risk of knee stiffness requiring manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) (p = 0.016 and p = 0.047, respectively). Knees with >2 ligaments injured were associated with higher post-operative complications (p = 0.007). Knee dislocation IV knees were at increased risk to undergo revision surgery (p = 0.041). Obese patients were more likely to have a post-operative infection (p = 0.038). Repair, reconstruction or type of graft used had no impact on need for revision surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multiligament knee injured patients undergoing surgical intervention are a highly complex patient population. This study outlines the patient population, treatment, and complications of one academic institution over 10 years. Overall complications were higher in patients with >2 ligaments injured. Knee stiffness requiring MUA was more common in patients who had >2 ligaments ruptured and those treated acutely. Knees with all four ligaments injured were more likely to undergo revision surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective case series, Level IV.
Cook, S; Ridley, TJ; McCarthy, MA; Gao, Y; Wolf, BR; Amendola, A; Bollier, MJ
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