Which preoperative factors, including bone bruise, are associated with knee pain/symptoms at index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR)? A Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) ACLR Cohort Study.
BACKGROUND: Increased knee pain at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may potentially predict more difficult rehabilitation, prolonged recovery, and/or be predictive of increased knee pain at 2 years. HYPOTHESIS: A bone bruise and/or other preoperative factors are associated with more knee pain/symptoms at the time of index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and the presence of a bone bruise would be associated with specific demographic and injury-related factors. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: In 2007, the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database began to prospectively collect surgeon-reported magnetic resonance imaging bone bruise status. A multivariable analysis was performed to (1) determine if a bone bruise, among other preoperative factors, is associated with more knee symptoms/pain and (2) examine the association of factors related to bone bruise. To evaluate the association of a bone bruise with knee pain/symptoms, linear multiple regression models were fit using the continuous scores of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) symptoms and pain subscales and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) bodily pain subscale as dependent variables. To examine the association between a bone bruise and risk factors, a logistic regression model was used, in which the dependent variable was the presence or absence of a bone bruise. RESULTS: Baseline data for 525 patients were used for analysis, and a bone bruise was present in 419 (80%). The cohort comprises 58% male patients, with a median age of 23 years. The median Marx activity level was 13. Factors associated with more pain were higher body mass index (P < .0001), female sex (P = .001), lateral collateral ligament injury (P = .012), and older age (P = .038). Factors associated with more symptoms were a concomitant lateral collateral ligament injury (P = .014), higher body mass index (P < .0001), and female sex (P < .0001). Bone bruise is not associated with symptoms/pain at the time of index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. None of the factors included in the SF-36 bodily pain model were found to be significant. After controlling for other baseline factors, the following factors were associated with a bone bruise: younger age (P = .034) and not jumping at the time of injury (P = .006). CONCLUSION: After anterior cruciate ligament injury, risk factors associated with a bone bruise are younger age and not jumping at the time of injury. Bone bruise is not associated with symptoms/pain at the time of index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Dunn, WR; Spindler, KP; Amendola, A; Andrish, JT; Kaeding, CC; Marx, RG; McCarty, EC; Parker, RD; Harrell, FE; An, AQ; Wright, RW; Brophy, RH; Matava, MJ; Flanigan, DC; Huston, LJ; Jones, MH; Wolcott, ML; Vidal, AF; Wolf, BR; MOON ACL Investigation,
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