Potassium Measures and Their Associations with Glucose and Diabetes Risk: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found low-normal potassium (K) to be associated with increased diabetes risk. We sought to verify these associations in a multi-ethnic US cohort; and to determine if these associations extend to US Hispanics and Asian-Americans. METHODS: We analyzed data from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who were free-of-diabetes at baseline. We examined cross-sectional associations between measures of K-serum, dietary, and urine-with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. We examined longitudinal associations between K and diabetes risk over 8 years. FINDINGS: In multivariable models, compared to those with higher serum K (≥4.5mmol/L), those with lower serum K (<4.0mmol/L) had significantly higher fasting glucose [1.3 mg/dL (95%CI 0.2, 2.4), P-value = 0.03]. Incident diabetes developed in 1281 of 5415 at-risk participants. In minimally-adjusted models, we found inverse associations between serum and dietary K and diabetes risk. Compared to those with higher serum K, those with lower serum K had an HR (95% CI) of incident diabetes of 1.23 (1.04, 1.47), P-value = 0.02. However, these associations were attenuated in fully-adjusted models. We found no significant interaction between potassium and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-ethnic cohort, we found a significant inverse association between serum K and fasting glucose but no significant association with longer-term diabetes risk. This inverse association between potassium and glucose must be studied further to understand the physiology and its potential impact on chronic health.
Chatterjee, R; Zelnick, L; Mukamal, KJ; Nettleton, JA; Kestenbaum, BR; Siscovick, DS; Ix, JH; Tracy, R; Hoofnagle, AN; Svetkey, LP; Edelman, D; de Boer, IH
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