Simultaneous optical and electrical in vivo analysis of the enteric nervous system.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a major division of the nervous system and vital to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its communication with the rest of the body. Unlike the brain and spinal cord, relatively little is known about the ENS in part because of the inability to directly monitor its activity in live animals. Here, we integrate a transparent graphene sensor with a customized abdominal window for simultaneous optical and electrical recording of the ENS in vivo. The implanted device captures ENS responses to neurotransmitters, drugs and optogenetic manipulation in real time.
Rakhilin, N; Barth, B; Choi, J; Muñoz, NL; Kulkarni, S; Jones, JS; Small, DM; Cheng, Y-T; Cao, Y; LaVinka, C; Kan, E; Dong, X; Spencer, M; Pasricha, P; Nishimura, N; Shen, X
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