Reliability, precision, and gender differences in knee internal/external rotation proprioception measurements.
OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess the reliability and precision of knee internal/external rotation (IR/ER) threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) and determine if gender differences exist. DESIGN: Test-retest for the reliability/precision and cross-sectional for gender comparisons. SETTING: University neuromuscular and human performance research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Ten subjects for the reliability and precision aim. Twenty subjects (10 males and 10 females) for gender comparisons. INTERVENTION: All TTDPM tests were performed using a multi-mode dynamometer. Subjects performed TTDPM at two knee positions (near IR or ER end-range). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (3,k)) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used to evaluate the reliability and precision. Independent t-tests were used to compare genders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: TTDPM toward IR and ER at two knee positions. RESULTS: Intrasession and intersession reliability and precision were good (ICC=0.68-0.86; SEM=0.22°-0.37°). Females had significantly diminished TTDPM toward IR at IR-test position (males: 0.77°±0.14°, females: 1.18°±0.46°, p=0.021) and TTDPM toward IR at the ER-test position (males: 0.87°±0.13°, females: 1.36°±0.58°, p=0.026). No other significant gender differences were found (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The current IR/ER TTDPM methods are reliable and accurate for the test-retest or cross-section research design. Gender differences were found toward IR where the ACL acts as the secondary restraint.
Nagai, T; Sell, TC; Abt, JP; Lephart, SM
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