Essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm


Book Section

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Benign essential blepharospasm (henceforth “blepharospasm”) and hemifacial spasm are conditions which are linked in the final manifestation of facial spasm and are similar in regard to basic approaches to treatment. These diseases are both movement disorders but have completely different pathophysiology. For this reason, the chapter is divided into separate sections, the first on blepharospasm and the second on hemifacial spasm.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Leyngold, I; Berbos, Z; Georgescu, D; Anderson, RL

Published Date

  • January 1, 2012

Book Title

  • Smith and Nesi's Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Third Edition

Start / End Page

  • 345 - 354

International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)

  • 9781461409700

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/978-1-4614-0971-7_21

Citation Source

  • Scopus