Current state of the treatment of perforating veins.
Perforating veins may play a role in the development of chronic venous insufficiency and ulceration. There is renewed interest in minimally invasive treatments vs historic surgical options. Current indications for treatment, technical success, and evidence for clinical efficacy are summarized. Existing recommendations include perforator closure in Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology class 5 or class 6 disease through percutaneous thermal ablation, subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery, open surgery, or sclerotherapy. Closure rates for percutaneous thermal ablation are reported as 60% to 80% initially. More recanalization and de novo perforator formation have been reported than after thermal saphenous closure. Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy has shown promise in perforator closure and wound healing, but with variable success rates. Regardless of method used, successful closure of perforators appears predictive of wound healing with minimal morbidity. However, the power and design of all studies supporting this are far from robust, and more work is needed.
Dillavou, ED; Harlander-Locke, M; Labropoulos, N; Elias, S; Ozsvath, KJ
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