Partial agonist activity of the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 mediated by an amino-terminal domain coactivator and phosphorylation of serine400.
Jun dimerization protein-2 (JDP-2) is a progesterone receptor (PR) coregulatory protein that acts by inducing structure and transcriptional activity in the disordered amino-terminal domain (NTD) of PR. JDP-2 can also potentiate the partial agonist activity of the PR antagonist RU486 by mechanisms that have not been defined. Functional mutagenesis experiments revealed that a subregion of the NTD (amino acids 323-427) was required for the partial agonist activity of RU486 induced by PR interaction with JDP-2. However, this subregion was not required for JDP-2 enhancement of the activity of progestin agonists. Mutation of phosphorylation sites within this region of the NTD showed that phosphorylation of serine 400 was required for the partial agonist activity of RU486 stimulated by JDP-2, but was not required for activity of hormone agonist, either in the presence or absence of JDP-2. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2)/cyclin A is a novel PR coregulator that binds the NTD and acts by phosphorylating steroid receptor coactivator-1 and modulating steroid receptor coactivator-1 interaction with PR. Cdk2/cyclin A also potentiated the partial agonist activity of RU486; however, phosphorylation of serine 400 was not required, indicating that JDP-2 and Cdk2/cyclin A act by distinct mechanisms. We conclude that PR bound to RU486 and associated with JDP-2 adopts an active conformation in a subregion of the NTD requiring phosphorylation of serine 400 that is distinct from that promoted by progestin agonists. These data underscore the structural flexibility of the NTD of PR, and the ability of steroid ligands together with interacting proteins to affect the conformation and activity of the NTD.
Wardell, SE; Narayanan, R; Weigel, NL; Edwards, DP
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