Current cardiovascular outcomes trials in type 2 diabetes: Perspectives and insight.
AIMS: The increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes has been known for many years. However, until recently the cardiovascular (CV) impact of glucose lowering strategies has been inadequately understood. Major clinical trials have now investigated the impact of intensification of glycemic control upon CV outcomes, as well as the CV effects of glucose management with newer antihyperglycemic agents. DATA SYNTHESIS: Key findings from recently completed CV outcomes trials of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors completed thus far are reviewed and summarized. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple trials designed to meet regulatory requirements for CV safety of antihyperglycemic medications have been initiated. The results of several completed CV outcomes trials clarify the risks and benefits associated with newer medications used to manage hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly in individuals at high CV risk. Important differences have been noted with respect to heart failure outcomes within the DPP4 inhibitor class, and thus far one agent in the SGLT2 inhibitor class has been found to significantly reduce rates of important CV outcomes. Robust safety related information from trials designed to assess the CV effects of diabetes therapies will permit the incorporation of outcomes-based evidence into the formulation of diabetes care guidelines.
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