High normal levels of albuminuria and risk of hypertension in Indo-Asian population.
Urine albumin excretion in the high normal range [urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) 10-29 mg/g)] predicts hypertension in European-origin populations. However, the prognostic significance of UACR in the high normal range for incident hypertension is unclear in Indo-Asians. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of normal to high normal levels of UACR and incident hypertension.
We conducted a nested cohort study within a cluster randomized controlled trial in Pakistan on 1272 normotensive non-diabetic adults aged ≥ 40 years with UACR <30 mg/g. Incident hypertension was defined as new onset of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg or initiation of antihypertensive therapy.
A total of 920 (72.3%) participants completed the 2-year final follow-up. During this time, 105 (11.4%) developed incident hypertension. In the multivariable model, the odds [95% confidence interval (CI)] for incident hypertension were 2.45(1.21-4.98) for those in the fourth (top) quartile (≥ 6.1 mg/g) and 2.12 (1.04-4.35) in the third quartile (3.8-6.1 mg/g) compared to those in the lowest quartile (<2.8 mg/g). In addition, a significant interaction between UACR and baseline SBP was observed suggesting that the odds (95% CI) of incident hypertension with UACR were greater at lower baseline SBP (interaction P = 0.044).
High normal levels of albuminuria as measured by UACR predict hypertension in non-diabetic Indo-Asians, and this relationship may be enhanced in individuals with low baseline SBP. Further research is needed to assess the clinical applicability of these findings.
Jessani, S; Levey, AS; Chaturvedi, N; Jafar, TH
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