Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Pakistan: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


We analysed data collected during a nationwide cross-sectional household survey to estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with smoking in Pakistan.


Population-based, cross-sectional survey [National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP) 1990-1994].


A population-based survey was carried out in Pakistan during 1990-1994. A nationally representative sample of 18,135 individuals aged 6 months and older was surveyed. We restricted this analysis to individuals aged 15 years or older (n=9442). The main outcome measure was self-reported smoking. Smokers were defined as individuals who reported current smoking and having smoked at least 100 cigarettes or 'beddies' during their lifetime.


Overall prevalence of smoking was 15.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 14.5-15.9%]. It was 28.6% (27.3-29.9%) among men and 3.4% (2.9-3.9%) among women. The highest prevalence was reported in men aged 40-49 years (40.9%). The independent predictors of smoking identified in the multivariate logistic regression analysis included age, male gender, ethnicity and illiteracy.


One out of every two to three middle-aged men in Pakistan smoke cigarettes. Our findings suggest that ethnically sensitive smoking control programmes that include measures for improving literacy rates are needed in Pakistan.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Ahmad, K; Jafary, F; Jehan, I; Hatcher, J; Khan, AQ; Chaturvedi, N; Jafar, TH

Published Date

  • June 2005

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 12 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 203 - 208

PubMed ID

  • 15942416

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1741-8275

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1741-8267

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/s1741-82670312303-1


  • eng