The role of systemic hypertension in the progression of nondiabetic renal disease.
A role for hypertension in the progression of renal disease has been convincingly shown in experimental animals only. In human studies, the relation between hypertension and progression is difficult to demonstrate due to several confounding factors: age, gender, race; the difficult choice of blood pressure (BP) parameters that correlate with progression; the abnormal circadian BP pattern; and the many non-hemodynamic factors of progression. An important role for hypertension in progressive nondiabetic renal disease has been suggested by observational studies and clinical trials originally intended to evaluate the effect of dietary protein restriction on progression. In addition, several studies, summarized by a recent meta-analysis, have shown that pharmacological agents which lower both BP and proteinuria, mainly the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), significantly slow the rate of progression in these diseases.
In this article we review the effect of lowering BP on the progression of nondiabetic chronic renal disease, the patient characteristics that are associated with a greater or lesser benefit of blood pressure reduction, and the choice of antihypertensive regimens associated with better outcomes in patients with renal disease.
Lower levels of achieved BP are associated with a slower decline in renal function, both in patients with and without proteinuria. ACEI are effective BP lowering agents and are associated with better preservation of renal function as opposed to antihypertensive regimens without ACEI. This protective effect of ACEI is in addition to their BP and urine protein lowering effects. The protective effect of ACEI on renal function is more pronounced in patients with proteinuria.
In patients with nondiabetic renal disease and proteinuria, the risk of progression can be minimized by lowering both BP and proteinuria. ACEI have an additional beneficial effect.
Marcantoni, C; Jafar, TH; Oldrizzi, L; Levey, AS; Maschio, G
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