Comparative effects of acute hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia on pro-atherothrombotic biomarkers and endothelial function in non-diabetic humans.
BACKGROUND: The comparative effects of acute moderate hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia on in vivo endothelial function together with pro-inflammatory and pro-atherothrombotic responses in healthy individuals have not been determined. METHODS: To investigate this question, 45 healthy subjects were compared during glucose clamp studies consisting of euinsulinemic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia (plasma glucose 11.1mmol/L, both with pancreatic clamps) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemia and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (plasma glucose 5.1 and 2.9mmol/L, respectively). Two-dimensional Doppler ultrasound was used to determine brachial artery endothelial function. RESULTS: Insulin levels during euinsulinemia hyperglycemia were 194±23 and (850±49-988±114) pmol/L during all hyperinsulinemic protocols. Responses of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, PAI-1, and IL-6 were increased (p<0.05-0.0001) during euinsulinemic hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia as compared to hyperinsulinemic euglycemia or hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia. PAI-1 was increased (p<0.04) during hypoglycemia as compared to euinsulinemic hyperglycemia, and TNF-α responses were also increased during hypoglycemia as compared to hyperinsulinemic euglycemia or hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia (p<0.05). In vivo endothelial function was similarly blunted by acute moderate hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. CONCLUSION: In summary, acute moderate hypoglycemia and euinsulinemic hyperglycemia can result in similar endothelial dysfunction and pro-atherothrombotic responses. Fibrinolytic balance was reduced by a greater extent by hypoglycemia as compared to moderate hyperglycemia. Acutely, hyperinsulinemia can prevent the acute pro-atherothrombotic and pro-inflammatory effects of moderate hyperglycemia but not hypoglycemia.
Joy, NG; Perkins, JM; Mikeladze, M; Younk, L; Tate, DB; Davis, SN
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