Focal Cryotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the oncological and functional outcomes of contemporary primary prostate focal cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer in the context of current developments in prostate focal therapy. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the Pubmed, Cochrane and Embase databases to identify studies where primary prostate focal cryotherapy was performed to treat prostate cancer. These included reports on focal/ lesion/ sector ablation, hemi-ablation and partial prostate ablation. We excluded salvage focal therapy studies. Where multiple reports were published over time from a single cohort, the latest one was used. RESULTS: Our search yielded 290 publications, including 17 primary reports on eight single-center cohort studies and one multi-center registry report. Of 1,595 men identified, mean age was 60.5-69.5 years and mean PSA 5.1-7.8 ng/ml. When stratified by D'Amico risk criteria, 52% of the aggregate total number of men were low-risk, 38% intermediate-risk and 10% high-risk. Besides 12-core TRUS biopsy, 3 cohorts reported using TTMB and one included mpMRI to select men for focal treatment. Median follow-up ranged from 13-63 months. BPFS ranged from 71-98%. The overall post-treatment positive biopsy rate was 8-25%. Among 5 cohorts with a mandatory 6-12 month posttreatment biopsy, 216 of 272 men (79%) did undergo biopsy, with 47 positive (21.8%). Of these, 15 were infield, 26 outfield, 2 bilateral and 4 undeclared. Ten upgraded to Gleason≥7. Overall, two men had metastatic disease and none died of prostate cancer. Post-treatment continence rates were 96-100% and rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 0-42%. The rate of post-treatment urinary retention ranged from 0-15%. The rate of recto-urethral fistula was 0-0.1%. CONCLUSION: Focal cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer is a safe and provides good preservation of sexual and urinary function. Accurate cancer localization and risk stratification is key to patient selection. In highly selected patients, focal therapy has good short to medium term oncological efficacy.
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