A new front in cell invasion: The invadopodial membrane.
Invadopodia are F-actin-rich membrane protrusions that breach basement membrane barriers during cell invasion. Since their discovery more than 30 years ago, invadopodia have been extensively investigated in cancer cells in vitro, where great advances in understanding their composition, formation, cytoskeletal regulation, and control of the matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP trafficking have been made. In contrast, few studies examining invadopodia have been conducted in vivo, leaving their physiological regulation unclear. Recent live-cell imaging and gene perturbation studies in C. elegans have revealed that invadopodia are formed with a unique invadopodial membrane, defined by its specialized lipid and associated protein composition, which is rapidly recycled through the endolysosome. Here, we provide evidence that the invadopodial membrane is conserved and discuss its possible functions in traversing basement membrane barriers. Discovery and examination of the invadopodial membrane has important implications in understanding the regulation, assembly, and function of invadopodia in both normal and disease settings.
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