Treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chongqing of China: unaffordable care for the poor.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


This study aims to investigate the medical expenditure of people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chongqing, China; to explore factors that contribute to the expenditure; and to examine the financial burden placed on households, particularly poor households.


A cross sectional survey was conducted with a sample of people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2014. Of the 664 people eligible, 76% were interviewed. Descriptive statistics and log-linear regression were used to examine respondents' age, sex and level education, location of residence, income and type of health insurance associated with out-of-pocket expenditure on accessing diabetes mellitus care.


In a year, average out-of-pocket expenditure on the purchase of drugs from pharmacies and having outpatient care were US $333 and US $310, respectively. The average out-of-pocket expenditure on accessing inpatient care was 3.7 times (US $1159) that of accessing outpatient care. After adjusting for age and sex, out-of-pocket expenditure on diabetes care was significantly higher for people covered by the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance programme and those enrolled in the identified priority diseases reimbursement programme, which provided higher reimbursement rates for outpatient and (or) inpatient care. Out-of-pocket expenditures on the purchase of drugs from pharmacies, having outpatient and inpatient care, respectively, were 9.8%, 16.2% and 62.6% of annual household income in low-income group.


Even with health insurance coverage, poor people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus suffered from significant financial hardship. This has significant implications for models of care and healthcare financing in China with the growing burden of diabetes.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Long, Q; He, M; Tang, X; Allotey, P; Tang, S

Published Date

  • January 2017

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 34 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 120 - 126

PubMed ID

  • 27472098

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1464-5491

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0742-3071

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/dme.13193


  • eng