Cytochrome P-450- and glutathione-associated enzyme activities in freshly isolated enriched lung cell fractions from beta-naphthoflavone-treated male F344 rats.
Xenobiotics metabolized in rat pulmonary tissue are often selectively cytotoxic to individual lung cell populations. A non-homogeneous distribution of xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, e.g., cytochrome P-450 (P-450)- and glutathione (GSH)-associated enzymes, in rat lung tissue may underlie this observed cell-selective pneumotoxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, the relative activities of P-450- and GSH-associated enzymes were measured in sonicated, freshly isolated preparations containing enriched complements of individual toxicant-sensitive lung cell types, including non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells (24% pure), alveolar type II cells (86% pure) and pulmonary endothelial cells (identified by membrane-associated angiotensin converting enzyme activity). Lung cell fractions were isolated by centrifugal elutriation from male F344 rats that 48 h earlier received a single i.p. injection of either P-450-inducer beta-naphthoflavone (50 mg beta-NF/kg body weight) or corn oil vehicle. The enriched Clara cell fraction possessed (per 10(6) cells) greater P-450 and reduced GSH contents and higher enzyme activities (i.e., NADPH- and NADH cytochrome c reductases, benzyloxy (BROD)-, pentoxy (PROD)- and etoxyresorufin (EROD)-O-dealkylases, GSH transferase, GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase) than either the enriched type II cell or endothelial cell preparations. However, the relative biochemical activities for the enriched fractions (Clara greater than type II greater than endothelial) generally reflected respective sonicate cellular protein content. Treatment of rats with beta-NF resulted in: (a) an induction in EROD activity in the enriched preparations of type II cells, Clara cells and endothelial cells (125-, 89- and 35-fold, respectively); (b) higher NADPH quinone oxidoreductase activities, which were increased to the greatest degree (3-fold) in the enriched type II cell fraction and (c) a small elevation in GSH transferase activity measured in the enriched Clara cell fraction. Although the enriched rat lung cell preparations possessed unique biochemical profiles for constitutive and beta-NF-inducible P-450- and GSH-associated enzymes, additional studies with higher purity preparations (e.g., Clara cells) will be required to more fully evaluate the relationship between relative cellular complements of xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes and pneumotoxicant susceptibility.
Lacy, SA; Mangum, JB; Everitt, JI
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