Preoperative Platelet Count Predicts Lower Extremity Free Flap Thrombosis: A Multi-Institutional Experience.
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytosis in patients undergoing lower extremity free tissue transfer may be associated with increased risk of microvascular complications. This study assessed whether preoperative platelet counts predict lower extremity free flap thrombosis. METHODS: All patients undergoing lower extremity free tissue transfer at Duke University from 1997 to 2013 and at the University of Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2013 were retrospectively identified. Logistic regression was used to assess whether preoperative platelet counts independently predict flap thrombosis, controlling for baseline and operative factors. RESULTS: A total of 565 patients underwent lower extremity free tissue transfer, with an overall flap thrombosis rate of 16 percent (n = 91). Elevated preoperative platelet counts were independently associated with both intraoperative thrombosis (500 ± 120 versus 316 ± 144 × 10/liter; p < 0.001) and postoperative thrombosis (410 ± 183 versus 320 ± 143 × 10/liter; p = 0.040) in 215 patients who sustained acute lower extremity trauma within 30 days before reconstruction. In acute trauma patients, preoperative platelet counts predicted a four-fold increased risk of intraoperative thrombosis (cutoff value, 403 × 10/liter; OR, 4.08; p < 0.001) and a two-fold increased risk of postoperative thrombosis (cutoff value, 361 × 10/liter; OR, 2.16; p = 0.005). In patients who did not sustain acute trauma, preoperative platelet counts predicted a four-fold increased risk of intraoperative thrombosis (cutoff value, 352 × 10/liter; OR, 3.82; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Acute trauma patients with elevated preoperative platelet counts are at increased risk for lower extremity free flap complications. Prospective evaluation is warranted for guiding risk stratification and targeted treatment strategies. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.
Cho, EH; Bauder, AR; Centkowski, S; Shammas, RL; Mundy, L; Kovach, SJ; Levin, LS; Hollenbeck, ST
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