The long-term effects of dietary sodium restriction on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. The SODIUM-HF (Study of Dietary Intervention Under 100 mmol in Heart Failure): a pilot study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

AIMS: To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial comparing a low-sodium to a moderate-sodium diet in heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with HF (New York Heart Association classes II-III) were randomized to low (1500 mg/d) or moderate-sodium (2300 mg/d) diet. Dietary intake was evaluated using 3-day food records. The end points were changes in quality of life as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) scores and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels from baseline to 6 months of follow-up presented as medians [25th, 75th percentiles]. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (19/group). After 6 months, median sodium intake declined from 2137 to 1398 mg/d in the low-sodium and from 2678 to 1461 mg/d in the moderate-sodium diet group. Median BNP levels in the low-sodium diet group declined (216-71 pg/mL, P = .006), whereas in the moderate-sodium diet group, there was no change in BNP (171-188 pg/mL, P = .7; P = .17 between groups). For 6 months, median KCCQ clinical score increased in both groups (63-75 [P = .006] in the low-sodium diet group and 66-73 [P = .07] in the moderate-sodium group; P = .4 between groups). At 6 months, a post hoc analysis based on the dietary sodium intake achieved (> or ≤ 1,500 mg/d) in all patients showed an association between a sodium intake ≤ 1,500 mg/d and improvement in BNP levels and KCCQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: A dietary intervention restricting sodium intake was feasible, and achievement of this sodium goal was associated with lower BNP levels and improved quality of life in patients with HF.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Colin-Ramirez, E; McAlister, FA; Zheng, Y; Sharma, S; Armstrong, PW; Ezekowitz, JA

Published Date

  • February 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 169 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 274 - 281.e1

PubMed ID

  • 25641537

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1097-6744

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.ahj.2014.11.013


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States