Does variety among activities increase happiness?

Published

Journal Article

© The Author 2016. Does variety increase happiness? Eight studies examine how the variety among the activities that fill people's day-to-day lives affects subsequent happiness. The studies demonstrate that whether variety increases or decreases happiness depends on the perceived duration of the time within which the activities occur. For longer time periods (like a day), variety does increase happiness. However, for shorter time periods (like an hour), variety instead decreases happiness. This reversal stems from people's sense of stimulation and productivity during that time. Whereas filling longer time periods with more varied activities makes the time feel more stimulating (which increases happiness), filling shorter time periods with more varied activities makes the time feel less productive (which decreases happiness). These effects are robust across actual and perceived variety, actual and perceived time duration, and multiple types of activities (work and leisure, selfselected and imposed, social and solo). Together the findings confirm that "variety is the spice of life"-but not of an hour.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Etkin, J; Mogilner, C

Published Date

  • January 1, 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 43 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 210 - 229

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0093-5301

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/jcr/ucw021

Citation Source

  • Scopus