Ethnic differences of intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study.
PURPOSE: To determine the ethnic differences in the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in a multi-ethnic Asian population by self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 033 adults (3353 Chinese, 3280 Malays, and 3400 Indians) aged >40 years. METHODS: Participants underwent standardized systemic and ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. The IOP readings were obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry (Haag-Streit, Konig, Switzerland) before pupil dilation. The CCT was measured with ultrasound pachymetry. Genetic ancestry was derived using principal component (PC) analysis. Regression models were used to investigate the association of IOP and CCT with potential risk factors and genetic ancestry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intraocular pressure and CCT. RESULTS: After excluding participants with a history of glaucoma surgery or medication, refractive surgery, corneal edema, or corneal dystrophy, IOP and CCT readings were available for 3251 Chinese, 3232 Malays, and 3317 Indians. The mean IOP readings in the Chinese, Malay, and Indian participants were 14.3±3.1, 15.3±3.7, and 15.8±2.9 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of participants with IOP ≥21 mmHg was 2.6% in Chinese, 6.2% in Malays, and 4% in Indians (P < 0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis, the Malay and Indian participants on average had 0.81 and 1.43 mmHg higher IOP levels, respectively, than Chinese (P < 0.001). The mean CCT reading was 552.3±33.4 μm in Chinese, 540.9±33.6 μm in Malays, and 540.4±33.6 μm in Indians (P < 0.001). The percentage of participants with CCT <555 μm was 52.8% in Chinese, 68.5% in Malays, and 66.2% in Indians (P < 0.001). The IOP and CCT levels are significantly correlated with genetic ancestry in our South East Asian population. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese have the thickest CCT but lowest IOP among the 3 major ethnic groups. In addition, there is a higher proportion of Malays with IOP ≥21 mmHg and CCT <555 μm compared with the Chinese or Indians. This disparity across ethnic groups should be taken into account by future studies investigating IOP and CCT as risk factors or diagnostic tests for glaucoma in Asian populations.
Chua, J; Tham, YC; Liao, J; Zheng, Y; Aung, T; Wong, TY; Cheng, C-Y
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)