Cerebral microbleeds and cognition: the epidemiology of dementia in Singapore study.
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are considered to be a novel marker of cerebral small vessel disease. However, the link with cognitive impairment remains unclear. We investigated whether CMBs-independent of other traditional markers of cerebral small vessel disease-are related to cognition. Chinese subjects from the population-based Singapore Chinese Eye Study, who failed an initial cognitive screening and were recruited into the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study, underwent neuropsychological testing and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging. The presence and number of CMBs were graded using Brain Observer Microbleed Scale on susceptibility-weighted images. Other magnetic resonance imaging lesions that were graded included presence of lacunes, white matter lesion, and total brain volumes. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered and cognitive function was summarized as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Among 282 subjects, 91 had any CMBs (32.3%), of whom 36 (12.8%) had multiple CMBs. CMBs were-independent of cardiovascular risk factors and other markers of cerebral small vessel disease-significantly associated with poorer cognitive function as reflected by composite Z-score (mean difference per CMB increase: -0.06; 95% confidence interval: -0.11, -0.01] and with domain-specific Z-scores including executive function, attention, and visuoconstruction. Among Chinese subjects CMBs were, independent of other concomitant markers of cerebral small vessel disease, associated with poorer cognitive function.
Hilal, S; Saini, M; Tan, CS; Catindig, JA; Koay, WI; Niessen, WJ; Vrooman, HA; Wong, TY; Chen, C; Ikram, MK; Venketasubramanian, N
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