Traditional and novel risk factors of diabetic retinopathy and research challenges.
Diabetic retinopathy affects one-third of people with diabetes and is the most frequent cause of blindness in working aged adults. Although diabetic retinopathy blindness appears to have fallen in the developed world, the rapidly increasing number of persons with diabetes worldwide has resulted in a continuous increase in the global burden of this disease. The major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy include duration of diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, but this is accountable for only a small amount of the variation in the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Research into new markers for retinopathy including genetics, blood biomarkers and retinal imaging will further improve our understanding of the risk factors and pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
Tan, GS; Ikram, MK; Wong, TY
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