Prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in Indians: a comparative study in Singapore and India.
PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2 Indian populations, 1 living in urban Singapore and 1 in rural central India. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional studies of Indians aged 40+ years. METHODS: Our analysis included 3337 Singapore-residing participants and 3422 India-residing participants. All participants underwent comprehensive systemic and ocular examinations and retinal photography. AMD was graded from retinal photographs according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Systemic and ocular risk factors were assessed for association with AMD. RESULTS: Singapore-residing participants were older (mean age 57.8 years vs 53.8 years) and, after adjusting for age and sex, were more likely to have previous cataract surgery, higher body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, higher cholesterol, and lower creatinine levels, but less likely to be current smokers, than India-residing participants. The age-standardized prevalence of early and late AMD was 4.45% and 0.34%, respectively, in Singapore and 5.80% and 0.16%, respectively, in India. Shorter axial length was associated with early AMD in both Singapore and India, whereas previous cataract surgery, higher body mass index, hypertension, and lower cholesterol were associated with early AMD in Singapore but not in India. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AMD was similar among Indian adults living in urban Singapore and rural India, despite differences in cardiovascular risk factor profile and demographics.
Gemmy Cheung, CM; Li, X; Cheng, C-Y; Zheng, Y; Mitchell, P; Wang, JJ; Jonas, JB; Nangia, V; Wong, TY
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