Prevalence and risk factors of meibomian gland dysfunction: the Singapore Malay eye study.


Journal Article

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence and associations of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in an urban Malay population in Singapore. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response rate) Malay persons aged 40 to 80 years, living in Singapore. MGD was defined by a slit-lamp clinical examination as either lid margin telangiectasia or meibomian gland orifice plugging in at least one eye. Participants underwent a standardized questionnaire and clinical examination, including laboratory investigations. Data were analyzed for 3271 persons. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of MGD was 56.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 53.3-59.4]. A higher MGD prevalence was found in male participants across all age groups [odds ratio (OR), 1.30; 95% CI, 1.35-1.79], postmenopausal women (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.19-2.33), and all participants with pinguecula (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.08-2.85), high diastolic blood pressure (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.62), and use of angiotensin II receptor blockers (OR, 4.02; 95% CI, 1.74-9.27). CONCLUSIONS: MGD was highly prevalent in this Asian population and associated with various systemic and ocular conditions.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Siak, JJK; Tong, L; Wong, WL; Cajucom-Uy, H; Rosman, M; Saw, SM; Wong, TY

Published Date

  • November 2012

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 31 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 1223 - 1228

PubMed ID

  • 22236788

Pubmed Central ID

  • 22236788

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1536-4798

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/ICO.0b013e31823f0977


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States