Corneal arcus is a sign of cardiovascular disease, even in low-risk persons.
PURPOSE: To examine the association of corneal arcus to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an adult, ethnic Indian population. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: Population-based study of ethnic South Asian Indians 40 to 80 years of age in Singapore from June 2007 through March 2009. We obtained a 75.5% response rate (3397/4497). All participants underwent standardized interview and systemic and ocular examinations, followed by nonfasting blood sampling. Corneal arcus was detected using a standardized slit-lamp examination. The main outcome measure was CVD, defined from a self-reported history of previous myocardial infarction, angina, or stroke. RESULTS: Corneal arcus, found in 1701 (50.1%) of 3397 participants, was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR], 3.07; 95% CI, 2.78 to 3.40; P < .001), male gender (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.81 to 2.62; P < .001), higher levels of total cholesterol (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.24; P = .002), hypertension (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.24; P = .013), and cigarette smoking (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.03; P < .001). Corneal arcus was associated with CVD (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.7; P = .0038) independent of the above-named cardiovascular risk factors. Participants with low-risk Framingham scores were more likely to be associated with CVD if they had corneal arcus (men: OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.20 to 3.40; P = .008; women: OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.01; P < .001). Corneal arcus was associated with CVD independent of the Framingham score (men: Akaike information criterion, 1524.39 for Framingham Score and corneal arcus vs 1527.38 for Framingham Score alone; women: 1000.14 vs 1003.54, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal arcus is associated with CVD, independent of risk factors in ethnic Indian adults, even in those at low risk for vascular disease.
Ang, M; Wong, W; Park, J; Wu, R; Lavanya, R; Zheng, Y; Cajucom-Uy, H; Tai, ES; Wong, TY
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