Hypertension, hypertension control, and chronic kidney disease in a Malay population in Singapore.
Studies conducted in Western populations demonstrate that blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The authors examined the cross-sectional association between BP and CKD in 3280 adults of Malay ethnicity aged 40 to 80 years living in Singapore. CKD was defined as (1) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and (2) presence of microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria. They observed a dose-dependent positive association between BP and CKD (P trend < .0001). In multivariable-adjusted analysis, compared with participants with normal BP, the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was 1.85 (0.95-3.62), 2.95 (1.55-5.64), and 4.96 (2.63-9.37) for prehypertension, and stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension, respectively. Similar results were obtained for microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria. Stage 2 hypertension had the greatest population-attributable risk of CKD (23%). The strong positive association of hypertension with CKD emphasizes the need to control BP in Asian populations to reduce the burden of kidney disease.
Sabanayagam, C; Shankar, A; Lim, SC; Tai, ES; Wong, TY
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