Retinopathy signs in people without diabetes: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of retinopathy and associations with cardiovascular risk factors in persons without diabetes in 4 racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese). DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We included 6176 subjects aged 45-84 years without diabetes, selected from 6 United States communities. METHODS: Fundus images were taken using 45° digital camera through dark-adapted pupils and were graded for retinopathy as defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale: microaneurysms, hemorrhages, cotton wool spots, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, hard exudates, venous beading, and new vessels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Retinopathy and the association with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Prevalence rates of retinopathy in persons without diabetes were 12.5% overall, varying from 11.9% (white), 13.9% (black), 12.6% (Hispanic), to 17.2% (Chinese). Hypertension was strongly associated with retinopathy (odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.75). After adjusting for age, gender, race, and other parameters, smoking (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.09-2.06) and increased internal carotid intima media thickness (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.41) were associated with retinopathy. A range of serum inflammatory factors were examined, but none were found to be significant. CONCLUSIONS: Retinopathy in persons without diabetes is common, varies with race/ethnicity, and associated with cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, and carotid artery intima media thickness.
Ojaimi, E; Nguyen, TT; Klein, R; Islam, FMA; Cotch, MF; Klein, BEK; Wang, J-J; Wong, TY
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