Cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation, and corneal arcus: the singapore malay eye study.
PURPOSE: To examine the relationship of corneal arcus with cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in Malay adults living in Singapore. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 3280 Malays aged 40-80 years (out of 4168 eligible participants; 78.7% response rate) had a standardized interview, systemic and ocular examinations, and laboratory investigations, including measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), chronic kidney disease, and peripheral artery disease. Corneal arcus was defined from anterior segment images taken with a slit-lamp camera. RESULTS: Corneal arcus was seen in 2345 out of 3260 participants who had anterior segment images (73.2%). After adjustment for age, gender, total cholesterol, serum glucose, and current smoking, many cardiovascular risk factors significantly associated with corneal arcus, including male gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.03), older age (per 10 years, OR 4.49, 95% CI 3.91-5.15), higher body mass index (per kg/m(2), OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04), higher levels of CRP (per 10 mg/L, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13-1.64), total cholesterol (per mmol/L, OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11-1.32), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (per mmol/L, OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.38-2.74), presence of peripheral artery disease (OR 3.85, 95% CI 1.29-11.5), chronic kidney disease (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.38), and current smoking (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.69). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms known associations of traditional cardiovascular risk factors with corneal arcus in an Asian population. Additionally, corneal arcus may be associated with systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral artery disease, and chronic kidney disease.
Wu, R; Wang, JJ; Tai, ES; Wong, TY
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