Prevalence and risk factors for visual impairment in preschool children the sydney paediatric eye disease study.
PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence and associations of visual impairment (VI) in preschool children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2461 children (73.8% participation rate), aged 6 to 72 months, were examined in the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study during 2007-2009; of whom 1188, aged 30 to 72 months, with complete visual acuity (VA) data in both eyes, were included in this report. METHODS: Measurement of VA was attempted on all children using the Electronic Visual Acuity (EVA) system or a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA <20/40 in children aged ≥48 months and <20/50 in those aged <48 months. Post-cycloplegic refraction was measured, and myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) ≤-0.50 diopters (D), hyperopia was defined as SE ≥2.00 D, astigmatism was defined as cylinder ≥1.00 D, and anisometropia was defined as SE difference ≥1.00 D between 2 eyes. Ethnicity, birth parameters, and sociodemographic information were collected in questionnaires completed by parents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual impairment prevalence and its associations with child demographic factors and birth parameters. RESULTS: Visual impairment was found in 6.4% of the worse eye and 2.7% of the better eye in our sample. Refractive errors (69.7%) and amblyopia (26.3%) were the principal causes of VI in the worse eye. Astigmatism (51.3%) and hyperopia (28.9%) were the main refractive errors causing VI. In regression analysis controlling for other factors, VI was independently associated with low birthweight of <2500 g (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.3), but not with age, gender, ethnicity, or measures of socioeconomic status (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Visual impairment in at least 1 eye was found in 6.4% of Australian preschool children, with bilateral VI found in 2.7%. Uncorrected refractive errors and amblyopia were the principal ocular conditions associated with VI. Low birthweight was a significant risk factor independent of age, gender, and ethnicity. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
Pai, AS-I; Wang, JJ; Samarawickrama, C; Burlutsky, G; Rose, KA; Varma, R; Wong, TY; Mitchell, P
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