Ethnic disparities in prevalence and impact of risk factors of chronic kidney disease.
BACKGROUND: There is substantial heterogeneity in literature regarding the epidemiology for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in different Asian populations. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Singapore. METHODS: We examined 4499 participants of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity, aged 24-95 years, who participated in the Singapore Prospective Study Program. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or the presence of micro/macroalbuminuria. RESULTS: The age, sex-standardized prevalence of CKD was 12.8% (11.4%, 18.6% and 17.6% in Chinese, Malays and Indians). Older age and the presence of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were significantly associated with CKD in all ethnic groups. Clinical, metabolic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors accounted for 68% and 78% of excess risk of CKD in Malays and in Indians, respectively. Diabetes (45%) and dyslipidaemia (16%) among Malays and hypertension among Indians (23%) had greater population-attributable risk of CKD. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CKD is high in all three major Asian ethnic groups, in particular Malays and Indians, but risk factors are similar to those reported from previous studies in Western populations. The association of modifiable risk factors with CKD emphasizes the need to screen and treat high-risk populations for early detection and prevention of CKD.
Sabanayagam, C; Lim, SC; Wong, TY; Lee, J; Shankar, A; Tai, ES
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