Early age-related macular degeneration, cognitive function, and dementia: the Cardiovascular Health Study.


Journal Article

OBJECTIVE: To describe the association of cognitive function and dementia with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in older individuals. METHODS: This population-based study included 2,088 persons aged 69 to 97 years who participated in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The AMD was assessed from retinal photographs based on a modified Wisconsin AMD grading system. Cognitive function was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Participants were also evaluated for dementia using detailed neuropsychological testing. RESULTS: After controlling for age, sex, race, and study center, persons with low DSST scores (lowest quartile of scores, < or =30) were more likely to have early AMD (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.85) than were persons with higher DSST scores. In analyses further controlling for education, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol level, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, and apolipoprotein E genotype, this association was stronger (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.10). There was no association of low Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores, dementia, or Alzheimer disease with early AMD. CONCLUSIONS: In this older population, cognitive impairment may share common age-related pathogenesis and risk factors with early AMD.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Baker, ML; Wang, JJ; Rogers, S; Klein, R; Kuller, LH; Larsen, EK; Wong, TY

Published Date

  • May 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 127 / 5

Start / End Page

  • 667 - 673

PubMed ID

  • 19433718

Pubmed Central ID

  • 19433718

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1538-3601

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.30


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States