The relationship of retinopathy in persons without diabetes to the 15-year incidence of diabetes and hypertension: Beaver Dam Eye Study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

PURPOSE: To examine the relationship of retinopathy in persons without diabetes mellitus to the 15-year cumulative incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. METHODS: A total of 3,402 persons 43 to 86 years of age without diabetes mellitus (1,879 without diabetes or hypertension) at the time of a baseline examination in 1988-1990 had follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, and/or 2003-2005. Diabetes mellitus was defined by a combination of history, serum glucose levels, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure >/=140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure >/=90 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive medications. Retinopathy at baseline was determined by masked gradings of stereoscopic fundus photographs using standardized protocols. RESULTS: Retinopathy was present in 7.3% of the nondiabetic persons in the cohort and 5.4% of the nondiabetic, nonhypertensive cohort at baseline. The 15-year cumulative incidence of diabetes was 12.5% and of hypertension 54.1%. While controlling for age, persons with retinopathy were more likely to develop diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, P value: 1.70, 1.17-2.48, P = .005) and hypertension (1.62, 1.18-2.23, P = .003) than persons without retinopathy. While controlling for other risk factors (eg, blood pressure, glucose level, cardiovascular disease history), the associations of retinopathy with incident diabetes mellitus (1.35, 0.90-2.03, P = .15) and hypertension (1.48, 1.05-2.07, P = .02) became attenuated but remained statistically significant for hypertension. In stratified analyses, retinopathy was associated with incident diabetes in persons younger than 65 years (1.80, 1.12-2.89, P = .02) CONCLUSIONS: While controlling for other risk factors, retinopathy in nondiabetic individuals is associated with the incidence of hypertension and, in younger persons, with the incidence of diabetes mellitus.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Klein, R; Klein, BEK; Moss, SE; Wong, TY

Published Date

  • 2006

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 104 /

Start / End Page

  • 98 - 107

PubMed ID

  • 17471330

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC1809909

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1545-6110


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States