Smoking, cardiovascular risk factors, and age-related macular degeneration in Asians: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.
PURPOSE: To assess associations between smoking and cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Singapore Malay population. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 3,280 Malay adults age 40 to 80 years were included in the study. Early and late AMD signs were graded from retinal photographs following Wisconsin system. All participants had interview, systemic examination, and laboratory investigations to determine smoking status and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 3,265 participants had gradable photos, 21 (0.6%) with late AMD and 169 (5.2%) with early AMD. After adjusting for age and gender, current smokers were significantly more likely to have late AMD (odds ratio [OR], 3.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40 to 10.23). This association was stronger among those who currently smoked >5 packs of cigarettes per week (OR, 9.35; 95% CI, 2.49 to 35.08). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was associated with a higher late AMD prevalence in Malays, consistent with findings from studies in White populations.
Cackett, P; Wong, TY; Aung, T; Saw, S-M; Tay, WT; Rochtchina, E; Mitchell, P; Wang, JJ
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