The microvasculature in chronic kidney disease.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 have an increased risk of cardiac and other vascular disease. Here we examined the association of CKD 3 to 5 with small vessel caliber. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This was a cross-sectional observational study of 126 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 (estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and 126 age- and gender-matched hospital patients with CKD 1 or 2. Retinal vessel diameters were measured from digital fundus images by a trained grader using a computer-assisted method and summarized as the central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE). RESULTS: Patients with CKD 3 to 5 had a smaller mean CRAE and CRVE than hospital controls (139.4 ± 17.8 μm versus 148.5 ± 16.0 μm, P < 0.001; and 205.0 ± 30.7 μm versus 217.4 ± 25.8 μm, respectively; P = 0.001). CRAE and CRVE decreased progressively with each stage of renal failure CKD1-2 to 5 (P for trend = 0.08 and 0.04, respectively). CKD and hypertension were independent determinants of arteriolar narrowing after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking history. Patients with CKD 5 and diabetes had a larger mean CRAE and CRVE than nondiabetics (141.4 ± 14.9 μm versus 132.9 ± 14.2 μm; 211.1 ± 34.4 μm versus 194.8 ± 23.8 μm). CONCLUSIONS: The microvasculature is narrowed in patients with reduced eGFR.
Ooi, QL; Tow, FKN-FH; Deva, R; Alias, MA; Kawasaki, R; Wong, TY; Mohamad, N; Colville, D; Hutchinson, A; Savige, J
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