Intracortical recording interfaces: current challenges to chronic recording function.
Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) offer significant hope to tetraplegic and paraplegic individuals. This technology relies on extracting and translating motor intent to facilitate control of a computer cursor or to enable fine control of an external assistive device such as a prosthetic limb. Intracortical recording interfaces (IRIs) are critical components of BCIs and consist of arrays of penetrating electrodes that are implanted into the motor cortex of the brain. These multielectrode arrays (MEAs) are responsible for recording and conducting neural signals from local ensembles of neurons in the motor cortex with the high speed and spatiotemporal resolution that is required for exercising control of external assistive prostheses. Recent design and technological innovations in the field have led to significant improvements in BCI function. However, long-term (chronic) BCI function is severely compromised by short-term (acute) IRI recording failure. In this review, we will discuss the design and function of current IRIs. We will also review a host of recent advances that contribute significantly to our overall understanding of the cellular and molecular events that lead to acute recording failure of these invasive implants. We will also present recent improvements to IRI design and provide insights into the futuristic design of more chronically functional IRIs.
Gunasekera, B; Saxena, T; Bellamkonda, R; Karumbaiah, L
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