Three-dimensional direct writing of B35 neuronal cells.
We have demonstrated two-dimensional and three-dimensional transfer of B35 neuronal cells onto and within polymerized Matrigel substrates, using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation-direct write (MDW). The B35 cells were transferred from a quartz ribbon to depths of up to 75 microm by systematically varying the fluence emitted from the ArF (lambda = 193 nm) laser source. MDW-transferred cells were examined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and alpha-tubulin staining. Confocal microscopy has shown that the transferred B35 cells extended their axons outward in three dimensions within the polymerized Matrigel substrate. The B35 cells made axonal connections and formed a three-dimensional neural network within 72 h after MDW transfer. In addition, TUNEL staining demonstrated that only 3% of the B35 cells underwent apoptosis after being transferred using the MDW process. MDW and other emergent direct write processes may provide unique approaches for creating layered, heterogeneous, three-dimensional cell-seeded scaffolds for use in peripheral nerve repair.
Patz, TM; Doraiswamy, A; Narayan, RJ; He, W; Zhong, Y; Bellamkonda, R; Modi, R; Chrisey, DB
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