Advances in bioengineered conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.
Although resorbable NGCs have been developed for peripheral nerve grafting, there has been little published on their use as a material for trigeminal nerve repair. Advances in engineered guidance channels and modifications to the single-lumen conduit with growth-permissive substrates, ECM proteins, neurotrophic factors, and supportive Schwann or stem cells, and anisotropic placement of these within the NGC may translate from animal models to clinical human use in the future. A great deal of research is still needed to optimize the presently available NGCs, and their use in peripheral trigeminal nerve repair and regeneration remains yet to be explored. Bioengineered NGCs and additives remain promising alternatives to autogenous nerve grafting in the future. They can incorporate all of the developing strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration that develop in concert with the ever-increasing understanding of regenerative mechanisms. The use of nanomaterials also may resolve the numerous problems associated with traditional conduit limitations by better mimicking the properties of natural tissues. Since cells directly interact with nanostructured ECM proteins, the biomimetic features of anisotropic-designed nanomaterials coupled with luminal additive ECMs, neurotrophic factors, and Schwann cells may provide for great progress in peripheral nerve regeneration.
Steed, MB; Mukhatyar, V; Valmikinathan, C; Bellamkonda, RV
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