Glutamine therapy improves outcome of in vitro and in vivo experimental colitis models.
Pharmacologic doses of glutamine (GLN) can improve clinical outcome following acute illness and injury. Recent studies indicate enhanced heat shock protein (HSP) expression is a key mechanism underlying GLN's protection. However, such a link has not yet been tested in chronic inflammatory states, such as experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Experimental colitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via oral 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days. GLN (0.75 g/kg/d) or sham was administered to rats by oral gavage during 7-day DSS treatment. In vitro inflammatory injury was studied using YAMC colonic epithelial cells treated with varying concentrations of GLN and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ).Pharmacologic dose, bolus GLN attenuated DSS-induced colitis in vivo with decreased area under curve for bleeding (8.06 ± 0.87 vs 10.38 ± 0.79, P < .05) and diarrhea (6.97 ± 0.46 vs 8.53 ± 0.39, P < .05). This was associated with enhanced HSP25 and HSP70 in colonic mucosa. In vitro, GLN enhanced cell survival and reduced proapoptotic caspase3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage postcytokine injury. Cytokine-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 subunit were markedly attenuated at GLN concentrations above 0.5 mmol/L. GLN increased cellular HSP25 and HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner.These data demonstrate the therapeutic potential of GLN as a "pharmacologically acting nutrient" in the setting of experimental IBD. GLN sufficiency is crucial for the colonic epithelium to mount a cell-protective, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory response against inflammatory injury. The enhanced HSP expression observed following GLN treatment may be responsible for this protective effect.
Xue, H; Sufit, AJD; Wischmeyer, PE
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